Scaling and root planing is a conservative periodontal treatment for removing plaque build up on tooth surfaces and under the gum line along the root. Scaling and root planing is a deep cleaning process. Scaling removes plaque and stains from the crown and roots. Planing smooths the root surface so that it becomes easier to remove the dental plaque. Scaling is usually carried out first with the help of ultrasonic scalers that vibrate at a very high frequency. These scalers dislodge plaque and tartar which is then flushed away using jets of water. Planing is done with the help of various instruments that have filing edges. The periodontist and hygienist uses these instruments to scrape away the plaque and calculus and smooth rough teeth surfaces.