Oral and Maxillofacial pathology is a discipline of dentistry that is concerned with the identification and management of the diseases of the mouth. The scope of this specialty of dentistry is vast and covers periodontal disease, bacterial infection, oral cancer, physical and chemical injuries, allergies, viral infections, and much more. This branch of dentistry plays an important role in the treatment of tumors and cysts in the soft tissue of the mouth, on the bone, or on the face. Most oral and maxillofacial pathological conditions can be seen by the individual; it is important to immediately consult a dentist if an abnormal growth or change in texture and appearance of mouth is seen. It is important to remember that a serious oral disease like cancer is not always accompanied by pain. Do not ignore lumps or sores that refuse to heal. Early detection is key to treatment of such pathological conditions; the growth or tumor is usually removed surgically even if it is not malignant. This is because such growths often hinder oral functions and there is a chance that they may turn malignant.